In 2019, a total of 18,000 online interviews were carried out with a nationwide sample of individuals from U.S. proprietary online panels representative of the U.S. population for people ages six and older. Strict quotas associated with gender, age, income, region, and ethnicity were followed to ensure a balanced sample.

The 2019 participation survey sample size of 18,000 completed interviews provides a high degree of statistical accuracy. All surveys are subject to some level of standard error - that is, the degree to which the results might differ from those obtained by a complete census of every person in the U.S. A sport with a participation rate of five percent has a confidence interval of plus or minus 0.32 percentage points at the 95 percent confidence level.

A weighting technique was used to balance the data to reflect the total U.S. population ages six and above. The following variables were used: gender, age, income, ethnicity, household size, region, and population density. The total population figure used was 302,756,603 people age six and older.

“Inactivity” was defined to include those participants who reported no to limited physical activity during the reporting year.

The study looks at 122 different sports and activities in a variety of sub-categories including, but not limited to: team and individual sports, outdoor sports and activities like camping, hunting, and fishing; fitness and exercise, action sports, golf, tennis, and much more.

Data reported for “winter sports” are based on seasons: 2014 year is 2013/2014 season, 2015 year is 2014/2015 season, 2016 year is 2015/2016 season, 2017 year is 2016/2017 season, 2018 year is 2017/2018 season and 2019 year is 2018/2019 season.

Each year, the Physical Activity Council (PAC) conducts the largest single-source research study of sports, recreation, and leisure activity participation in the U.S. The PAC is made up of eight of the leading sports and manufacturer associations who are dedicated to growing participation in their respective sports and activities.

These leading trade and industry associations provide the most comprehensive, accurate, and actionable database of participation data.Please contact any of the individual members of the PAC or Sports Marketing Surveys to learn more about the study and other available data.

If you have specific questions regarding the methodology, please contact Sports Marketing Surveys USA at